The solar panel is the core part of the solar power generation system. The function of the solar panel is to convert the light energy of the sun into electrical energy, and the output DC power is stored in the battery. Solar panels are one of the most important components in solar power systems, and their conversion rate and service life are important factors in determining whether solar panels are useful.
1. Monocrystalline silicon solar panel
At present, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of monocrystalline silicon solar panels is about 19%, and the highest is 21%. This is the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency among all kinds of solar panels, but the production cost is so large that it cannot be A large number and widespread use. Since monocrystalline silicon is generally encapsulated with tempered glass and waterproof resin, it is durable and has a service life of up to 15 years and up to 25 years.
2.Polycrystalline silicon solar panels
The manufacturing process of polycrystalline silicon solar panels is similar to that of monocrystalline silicon solar panels. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar panels is not much worse than that of single crystal silicon, and its photoelectric conversion efficiency is about 17%. In terms of production cost, it is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon solar panels, the material is simple to manufacture, saves power consumption, and the total production cost is low, so it has been greatly developed.
3.Amorphous silicon solar panel
Amorphous silicon solar panels are new thin film solar panels that appeared in 1976. They are completely different from single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon solar panels. The process is greatly simplified, silicon materials are consumed less, and power consumption is lower. Its main advantage is that it can also generate electricity in low light conditions. However, the main problem of amorphous silicon solar panels is that the photoelectric conversion efficiency is low. At present, the international advanced level is about 10%, and it is not stable enough. As time goes by, its conversion efficiency is attenuated, so it has not been widely used as a large solar power source. Mostly used for low-light power supplies, such as pocket-sized electronic calculators, electronic clocks and copiers.
4.Multi-component solar panels
A multi-component solar panel refers to a solar panel that is not made of a single element semiconductor material. Nowadays, there are many varieties of research in various countries, most of which have not yet been industrialized, mainly in the following categories:
a) Cadmium sulfide solar panels
b) GaAs solar panels
c) Copper indium selenide solar panels (new multi-band gap gradient Cu(In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar panels)
On the whole, polycrystalline silicon solar panels are favored for their abundant raw materials, low cost, high conversion efficiency and good stability, and they also occupy the solar panel market in line with the needs of society. The main share. The center of gravity has evolved from single crystal to polycrystalline, the main reasons are:
 There are fewer and fewer head and tail materials available for solar panels;
 For solar panels, the square substrate is more cost-effective, and the polycrystalline silicon obtained by the casting method and the direct solidification method can directly obtain a square material;
 The production process of polysilicon is continuously progressing. The automatic casting furnace can produce more than 200 kg of silicon ingot per production cycle (50 hours), and the size of the crystal grains reaches the centimeter level;
 Due to the rapid research and development of monocrystalline silicon technology in the past decade, the process is also applied to the production of polycrystalline silicon batteries, such as selective corrosion emission junction, back surface field, corroded suede, surface and body passivation, fine Metal gate electrode.