This advice applies to any type of panel that derives energy from the sun: photovoltaic, solar hot water and etc.
We assume that the panel is fixed or has a slope that can be adjusted seasonally. (The panel that tracks the entire solar motion can get 10% more (winter) to 40% (summer) than the fixed panel. This article does not discuss tracking panels.)
If you are in the northern hemisphere, solar panels should always face the true south, and if you are in the southern hemisphere, the solar panels should be truly south. Zhenbei is not the same as Magnetic North. If you use the compass orientation panel, you need to correct the different differences, depending on the location. Search for "magnetic declination" on the web to find the right angle for your location.
The next question is, from what angle should the panel be tilted? Books and articles about solar energy often suggest that the slope should be equal to your latitude, plus 15 degrees in winter and 15 degrees in summer. It turns out that a reduction of about 4% is better than this.
Fixed or adjustable?
It is easiest to mount your solar panel in a fixed, tilted position. But because the summer sun is high and the winter is low, you can adjust the slope of the panel according to the season, and you can capture more energy all year round.
In short, adjusting the tilt twice a year can effectively increase energy. Adjusting it four times a year can only be a little more, but if you need to optimize production in the spring and fall, it can be important.
If your solar panel will have a fixed tilt angle and you want to get the most energy throughout the year, take a look at this section. Fixed angles are convenient, but have some drawbacks. As mentioned above, you will get less power than the adjustment angle. Also, if you live in a place with snow, adjust the panel to a steeper angle in winter. Snow-covered panels produce little or no power.
If your latitude is below 25°, multiply the latitude by 0.87.
If your latitude is between 25° and 50°, multiply the latitude by 0.76, plus 3.1 degrees.
2.Adjust the tilt twice a year
If you want to adjust the tilt of the solar panels every year and want to get the most energy throughout the year, then you should take a hard look at this paragraph.
If your latitude is between 25° and 50°, the best summer dip is latitude multiplied by 0.93, minus 21 degrees. The best dip in winter is latitude multiplied by 0.875, plus 19.2 degrees. If your latitude is outside this range, please see the other conditions below.
3.Adjust the tilt four times a year
If you want to adjust the slope of the solar panel four times a year and want to get the most energy throughout the year; if you are connected to the grid and can use or sell all the power you produce, this paragraph will be a must see.
If your latitude is between 25° and 50°, the best angle of inclination is:
In summer, the ride latitude is multiplied by 0.92, minus 24.3 degrees.
In spring and autumn, ride the latitude multiplied by 0.98, minus 2.3 degrees.
For winter, multiply the latitude by 0.89 and add 24 degrees.
In the winter, panels fixed at winter angles will be relatively effective, accounting for 81% to 88% of energy compared to optimal tracking. In spring, summer and autumn, efficiency is low (74-75% in spring/autumn and 68-74% in summer), because in these seasons, the sun runs a larger sky area, and fixed panels cannot capture it. A lot of energy. These are the most favorable seasons for tracking systems.
Please note that the winter angle is approximately 5° from the usual recommended angle. The reason is that most of the solar energy in the winter is at noon, so this group should point directly to the sun at noon. This angle is fine-tuned to collect the most total energy in a day.
The summer angle is approximately 12 degrees than is usually recommended. In fact, at 25° in summer, the panel should actually deviate slightly from the equator.
Different types of solar power generation systems have different optimal installation inclination angles. Solar power generation systems use natural light to feel the length of daily working hours. Therefore, it is better to obtain the maximum power generation angle according to winter. The inclination should be higher than the local latitude.